This is the list of 6 renowned European thinkers since Rene Descartes.
Kant was the world famous German philosopher who thought about the origin of knowledge. His book, The Critique of Pure Reason, published in 1781, is one of the foremost works in Philosophy. Kant's thoughts were sceptic and rationalist at the same time. His some theorems earned many enemies. He published 'Religion within the Limits of Reason' in 1793, which drew protests from the conservatives. He was eventually banned from publishing works related to religion.
Kant passed away in 1804.
Spinoza was born in the Netherlands. He said there was only one matter in the world and that was God. He was called an athiest and theologist at the same time. He was a Jew but his theorems led to his banishment from the community in 1656. He later worked as a teacher and lens worker. He died at the age of 45.
Berkeley was an Irish thinker and priest. He published his first philosophical writings in 1709, titled 'Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision'. He became a Bishop in 1734. He was against materialism and said the world around us was the our mind's creations. He passed away in 1753.
Reid was a British thinker who influenced American pragmatism. He was a follower of the thoughts of John Locke and David Hume. His famous book was 'An Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense'. He said. The cosmos was insependent and it was the power of God. The knowledge of us about the cosmos is the gift of God. He died in 1796.
Hume questioned the rationalist thoughts of 17th century. He told whatever feels right to our mind will be morally right; that is our mind is what determines right and wrong. This stream of thought attracted many criticism in late years. Hume was born in Edinborough. He was also a writer and diplomat. His most famous work is the 'History of Great Britain' which spans in 6 volumes.
He was called by Bertrand Russell the 'most fortunate philosopher' because Locke had the luck to see his ideas recognised by his contemporaries. The English philosopher was a political thinker as well. He spoke against the belief that power was divine and said that every man was equal. Some of his political ideals had found place in the constitutions of US and France. He passed away in 1704. His most famous work was 'An Essay Concerning Human Understanding'.
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