A number of Muslim dynasties ruled in India in the medieval era. These are the list of most important ones among them.
Muhammed Gori was the one who laid the groundworks for the Muslim rule in India. After his death, his military officer Qutubdin Ibek established an empire and thus began the history of Sultanates in India.Slave Dynasty
The Slave Dynasty, also known as Mamluk Dynasty, was the first Muslim dynasty in India. It was founded by Qutub din Ibek, who had been a slave of Muhammed Gori, in 1206. He occupied throne for 4 years. He was the one who started the building of Qutub Minar, which was finished by Ilthumish, another ruler of the dynasty. The most powerful ruler of this dynasty was Balban.
He assumed the policy of 'blood and iron' and mercilessly annihilated his enemies. His daughter Rasiya Sultana ruled the kingdom from 1236 to 1240. She is the first woman and only Muslim woman to have occupied the throne of Delhi. Persian was the official language of the dynasty.
The Khilji dynasty was established by Jalaluddin Khilji in 1290. He killed Kaikobad, the last king of Slave dynasty. The most popular ruler of the dynasty was Alavuddin Khilji. He was the first Muslim king in India to marry a Hindu woman. He married Kamala Devi, the widow of Gujarat king. He was also the first Indian ruler to establish price regulation and market regulation. He improvised postal system as well. Amir Khusro was his capital poet. The last king of Khilji dynasty was Mubarak Shah.Thuglaq Dynasty
The Thuglaq Dynasty was established by Giasuddin Thuglaq in 1320. The most known ruler in the dynasty was Muhammed bin Thuglaq. He policies were ambitious but impractical. Shifting capital from Delhi to Devagiri was one of them. Another important ruler was Firoz Shah Thuglaq. He established irrigation projects and imposed the tax 'Jasiya' on Hindus. After him, the Thuglaq dynasty began to wane.Sayyid Dynasty
The Sayyid dynasty was founded by Kisar Khan in 1413. They occupied the throne till 1451. The Sayyid dynasty was not popular for much reforms and powerful rulers. The last ruler of the dynasty was Alavuddin Alam Shah, who was defeated by Bahalul Lodhi.Lodhi Dynasty
The Lodhi Dynasty was established by Bahalul Lodhi in 1451. The most popular ruler of the dynasty was Sikander Lodhi. He was the one who founded the city of Agra. Agra was mor popular than Delhi for nearly a century and half. The rule of Lodhis was ended when Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the Panipat War in 1526 and established the Mughal Empire.
India and China fought battle for the only time in 1962. Read a brief history of the war here..
The strength of Indian civilization and its unique social hierarchy where the ascetic intellectual, the Brahmin, was placed above the all powerful King, helped in putting restraint on its rulers. However, while this strengthened the ability of the society to reign the King, it also had a weakening effect on the State, which became crucial when India was faced with foreign invaders.
There were many philosophers who lived before Jesus Christ. Read about some of them here..