Field Marshall Frederick Roberts - A Long serving British soldier and winner of the Victoria Cross.
Future Field Marshall Born In The Indian Raj
Frederick Roberts was born to British parents living in India during the year 1832. After spending his early childhood in India he was educated in English public schools and then attended the British Army's top academy at Sandhurst.
Back To India For A Victoria Cross
Although he graduated from the military academy at Sandhurst he started to make his reputation as a soldier back in India. Roberts showed a great deal of bravery as the British sought to regain control of the Raj in the wake of the Indian Mutiny. He was awarded the Victoria Cross.
Further Distinction During The Afghan Wars
The Second Afghan War led to further enhancements of his military reputation as a consequence of the long march to retake Kandahar from Kabul. Not only was he a capable commander he was a sound administrator, commanding forces in India and Ireland.
Out Of Administrative Roles To Salvage The British War Effort In South Africa
With the Boer War going so badly in 1899 it was Field Marshall Roberts that the government called upon to retrieve the situation. The experience of Roberts was vital in overcoming the stubborn resistance of the Boers.
Reforming The British Army - Bad News For The Germans
Roberts was heavily involved in the changes to the British Army introduced prior to 1914 as the shortcomings shown up in South Africa were rectified.
For example the quality of it's rifles were improved, culminating in the long barrelled Lee Enfield rifle. More heavy machine guns and artilery would prove invaluable in the First World War. Great efforts were made to prove the accuracy of the infantry and the artilery, making the British Army one of the most effective in the world.
A Popular Commander On The Western Front
His appointment as Commander in chief on the Western front therefore made a great deal of sense. He was very popular within the army and seemed to have a high regard for his troops in general and the Indian regiments in particular.
Premature Death In France
Indeed he caught a fatal case of pneumonia whilst visiting Indian troops on the Western Front in November 1914. Perhaps the British Army would fared better in the First World War if he had lived longer. Certainly his death removed one of the most capable British generals of his own generation.
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The strength of Indian civilization and its unique social hierarchy where the ascetic intellectual, the Brahmin, was placed above the all powerful King, helped in putting restraint on its rulers. However, while this strengthened the ability of the society to reign the King, it also had a weakening effect on the State, which became crucial when India was faced with foreign invaders.
Ancient Indian society had succeeded in orienting the lifestyle, expectations and duties of its people in accordance with their vocation or profession. This helped in achieving greater vocational specialization and gave rise to four classes of Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras.